PERM - The poem of the town PERM - The poem of the town
PERM - The poem of the town PERM - The poem of the town

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HISTORICAL PERM

 

The Urals is a wide-known mountain name. So they are created. So their towns and people inhabiting them live. Various lives, deeds and fates comprise "the everlasting Urals, inhabited by people". Perm was meant to develop mining and metallurgical industries in Russia. The town was situated on the Kama banks and through the Kama ports ships loaded with iron, salt and furs went to Moscow and Saint Petersburg, down the Kama and Volga. From the east town gate Siberian highway led to Asia and Perm was called "the gates of Siberia".

Karl F. Moderakh (1748 - 1819)

Karl F. Moderakh (1748 - 1819). Perm Governor between 1796 and 1811, the author of the construction plan of Perm

Enterprise was the most important thing for all the population of the eighteenth-century town: its founders, engineers and manufacturers, craftsmen and tradesmen, builders, officers, doctors, teachers and priests, barge haulers, sailors and railway-men, members of elective district councils called Zemstvo, educators, scientists and scholars, masters, inventors and designers.

On behalf of enterprise the first Vicegerent of Perm and Tobolsk, E. P. Kashkin ordered to built state buildings, the Governor's house and the building of the Duma, a town council. On behalf of enterprise the first shops and stores were built on the Kama bank. The Governor K. F. Moderakh developed the construction plan of Perm: some streets run along the Kama, others took start from the Kama. A simple and clear plan. He did recommend the Duma to build roads through the town common green as soon as possible...

It was growing, Perm of works, Perm of trades. The shopping arcade of Gostiny Dvor was built. A hospital at the works, an elementary school for common people, a classical school, some other schools... Educators started their restless and difficult work. The face of the town was taking shape. A worker's face. For three centuries the town has been built. Time imprinted in its buildings. Its builders' work belongs to all of us.

Eugene P. Kashkin (1738 - 1796)

Eugene P. Kashkin (1738 - 1796). He was appointed General-Governor of Perm and Tobolsk in 1780

Shy streams of the Yegoshikha, Iva, Mulyanka, Danilikha serve rather works, plants and factories than people. The Kama itself is to live a working life. Who knows how many loaded barges, ships, rafts, tugboats and steamers travelled up and down it?! The embankment has changed - trains run along the Ural railway and the railway bridge crossed the Kama.

The mankind have gone a long way towards increasing their industrial power. Perm becomes a big industrial centre. Metallurgical, engineering, oil-refining and woodusing industries as well as big defence-oriented works are the prominent features of our city.

The mankind have gone a long way towards developing sciences and humanities. Perm becomes a big educational, scientific and researching centre.

The mankind have been establishing trade and industrial relations. Perm looks for and finds business contacts with the world and undertakes new projects.

"Closed" just several years ago, nowadays Perm is ready for co-operation in any field and gets partners in Austria, Germany, the UK, India, China, Sweden, the countries of Eastern Europe, the USA. And again, all this has been done on behalf of enterprise.

Old works producing heavy guns

Old works producing heavy guns

There is no monument to an unknown peasant in Russia. What a shame! It was he, an unknown peasant, a jack of all trades, who settled in the wild Ural forests by the deserted Ural rivers, put up logged huts, shaped the world of his own. He always sought but was hardly meant for freedom: either the lands with all the inhabitants, happened to be granted to the Stroganoffs in perpetuity, or the whole region was declared the Tsar's realty. A peasant was turned into a serf craftsman and labour. He mined copper ore, built weirs and dams, dug ponds... An ore expert, foundryman, blast-furnace worker... but still a jack of all trades, a craftsman.

Perm environs abounded in them, well known or unknown craftsmen. We have no idea of how Ivan Lopatin got skilled in founding but he did tap the first hearth at the Motovilikha copper foundry. Who knows how many craftsmen and masters worked at the steel foundry producing heavy guns? How many - from the beginning of Motovilikha till nowadays? Many a time the Fire command was given at the testing grounds of the oldest plant in Perm. Over the years fireburned in the hearths and furnaces of Motovilikha. In 1876 white-hot steel spouted out of the first open-hearth furnace. In 1886 the first electric lights were turned on. In 1888 an engineer Nikolay G. Slavyanov demonstrated his new invention - electric-arc welding. The creative flame used by the mankind.

Alexey A. Volkov (1738 - 1796)

Alexey A. Volkov (1738 - 1796). General-Governor of Perm and Tobolsk between 1789 and 1796, he bought the equipment in Moscow and opened the first printing house in Perm.

Motovilikha's heavy guns fired at the fronts of the Second World War up to the victory day. Four long years the plant director A. I. Bykhovsky, designers, engineers and workers never thought of having a rest. The victory day on the 9th of May, 1945, was their first day-off. Motovilikha artillery and missile systems still serve our armed forces.

Another application of the plant's products is the space. In 1961 its director V. N. Lebedev, engineers and workers got awards for their successful developing the rocket technology and supporting the manned space flights.

The trade mark of the Motovilikha Plants joint stock company is used for high-graded steels and rolled products, new generations of cranes and excavators.

Many a time aircraft engines produced in Perm were tested for strength. They didn't fail. The first aircraft plant in Russia has war records, takes-off and testing grounds of its own. It has bright designers - A. D. Shvetsov, P. A. Solovyov. Their school took an important place in the history of aviation and influenced the development of home aircraft-engine manufacturing industry. The colleagues and pupils of the famous aircraft designers, highly skilled engineers and workers still work at the Perm Motory joint stock company. Here the first stage of a Proton-PM carrier-rocket was born to take satellites and space stations to the near-earth orbits. Engines for IL-96 and TU-204 airplanes, reduction gears for KB Mila helicopters and other technologically advanced products have been made there. The Perm Motory trademark is reliable both in the sky and the space.

Nikolay G. Slavyanov (1854 - 1897) and the Motovilikha works engineers. A scientist and metallurgist, he

Nikolay G. Slavyanov (1854 - 1897) and the Motovilikha works engineers. A scientist and metallurgist, he invented the electric-arc welding

 

Another Perm enterprise, the Kirov plant also was a defence-oriented giant. Recently it turned to peaceful tracks producing polyurethane and acrylicitems, decorative foamed materials... As for gun powder - well, they still keep their powder dry!

Perm citizens, both young and old, re member the production of the Dzerzhinsky plant. Its workers still produce motorized saws ('The Urals', 'Friendship' and 'Taiga') as well as centrifugal pumps and oil separators. The 'Telta' joint stock company offers all kinds of modern telephone sets, from the Government ones till well protected pay-phones.

Once Perm sent its copper to the mint in Petersburg. Heavy guns made from Perm copper were spread across Russia. Nowadays the Goznak factory supplies the country with paper money and all kinds of securities.

The present Perm trade mark means prefabricated ferro-concrete structures and construction materials, screw pumps and power cable, oil-refining products and multichannel telephone equipment, chemical raw materials and high-voltage insulators, mineral fertilizers and gas-pumping units, gypsum polymers, greases and medicines.

They are all made by people.

Shift follows shift... These words are clear to everybody in Perm. Shift follows shift... No film director is able to reproduce this movement of people in time and space, all the workers' shifts at all the plants and factories in Perm over the years of labour. This stream, this movement is and will be for ever.

Perm cabmen
The first car in Perm

Perm cabmen

The first car in Perm

 
Building of a tramway in Perm in the 1920-s
 
 

Building of a tramway in Perm in the 1920-s

 

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Alexander Kashintsev © The city of Perm