PERM - The poem of the town PERM - The poem of the town
PERM - The poem of the town PERM - The poem of the town

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The year of foundation - 1723
Population (2013) - about 1,015,000

Economic and geographical position of the city may be designated as unique: it is located on the bank of the Kama in the nearest neighbourhood of the Ural Mountains. Owing to its position Perm is the eastern-most port of the United Deep-Water System of the European part of Russia. Here is the intersection of the Kama deep-water route, the Trans-Siberian railway and federal arterial road Kazan-Perm-Ekaterinbourg.

Perm the beginnings of XX century

Perm the beginnings of XX century

Perm was founded in 1723 as a small settlement near Egoshikha copper-smelting plant which was reformed to the town of Perm in 1780. In 1781 Perm became the centre of the region ruled by governor-general, and in 1796 - the principal town of province of the same name.

In 1788 the copper-smelting plant was closed because of depletion of ore resources. Advantageous economic and geographical position of the town was the decisive factor in its further development. Perm grew, became more rich and developed as the leargest commercial centre in commodity circulation between Europe and Asia. Regular shipping traffic along the Kama was started in 1840, and in 1858 regular passenger service between Perm and Nishny Novgorod was established. On October 1, 1878 Perm-Nizhny Tagil-Ekaterinbourg railway line was inaugurated. At the end of the 19th century Perm-Kotlas railway was built, in 1905 railway communication with St. Petersbourg was established, and in 1908 Perm became a station of the Trans-Siberian railway. New plants were put into operation (Gullet's Ship-Repairing Plant, 1858, now Machine-Building Plant named after Dzerzhinsky; Perm Cannon-Making Plant, 1863, now the Joint Stock Company "Motovilikhinskye Zavody" and others). Commercial and transport enterprises of I. I. Luybimov, N. V. Meshkov, F. K. Kamenskikh and G. K. Kamenskikh became the enterprises of economic importance. Numerous educational institutions (secondary schools, theological seminary, technical high school) were opened in Perm. In 1916 the first state university of the Urals was established here.

Perm today

Up to 1923 Perm was the principal town of the province. Then it became the centre of the okrug (until 1931) and the centre of the district incorporated in the Sverdlovsk region (until 1938). Since 1938 Perm is the centre of the Perm region.

During the Soviet period the highest rates of development were exhibited by enterprises of machine-building. chemical and petrochemical industries. In 1930s an aircraft engine-building plant, ship-building plant, several chemical enterprises and heat-electric generating station # 6 were erected. In 1940s an aggregate-building plant, bicycle plant, telephone plant, chemical plant ("Galogen"), margarine factories, house-building works and tobacco factory were built; in 1950s Kama Hydro, oil refinery, pulp-and-paper mill, cable plant, long-distance communication equipment plant, heat-electric generating station # 9 and other enterprises were launched; in 1960s plants producing high-voltage insulators, synthetic detergents, appliances, electric equipment, etc. were commissioned. The network of educational and cultural institutions was considerably extended.

Perm is one of the largest cities in the Ural region and in Russia. Its contribution to the national and regional economy is difficult to overestimate. In 1999 its share in the total volume of regional production comprised 40,9%.

The leading inter-branch complexes of the city are machine-building, chemical, fuel and energy, and timber industrial complexes. Food industry is well represented in Perm. There are several enterprises of light and construction materials producing industries.

Perm today

The machine-building complex includes enterprises engaged in electrical engineering (the Open Joint Stock Company "Kamkabel", the Open Joint Stock Company "Eliz"), production of navigation and communication equipment (the Open Joint Stock Company "Morion", the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Research and Production Instrument-Making Company", the Open Joint Stock Company "Telta"), production of aircraft engines and their components (the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Machine-Building Association "Inkar", the Open Joint Stock Company "Permskye Motory", the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Motor-Building Plant"), production of bicycles and car assembly units (the Open Joint Stock Company "Velta"), mining engineering (the Open Joint Stock Company "Mining Engineering Plant), ship-building (the Open Joint Stock Company "Shipbuilding Plant "Kama") and other industries.

Special place in the machine-building industry of the region belong to the enterprises of military-industrial complex which currently produce various civil-purpose products as well. The State Enterprise "Mashinostroitel" produces materiels of space rocket systems, oil- and gas field equipment, gas-pumping units, microwave ovens and other articles.

The Open Joint Stock Company "Research and Production Association "Iskra" being one of the leading Russian enterprises in the field of production of solid propellant power plants for rocket-space complexes and systems manufactures also varied equipment for fuel and energy and agro-industrial complexes, emergency systems. Machine-Building Plant named after Dzerzhinsky produces motorized chain saws, medical electrosurgical apparatus and other tools and devices.

Perm today

The Open Joint Stock Company "Motovilikhinskye Zavody" (the oldest producer of cannons in Russia) manufactures also automotive-type cranes, excavators and other machines.

Chemical complex enterprises produce great number of various chemicals.

The Open Joint Stock Company "Mineral Fertilizers" (Perm) specializes in production of nitrogenous fertilizers. The Open Joint Stock Company "Sorbent" is the leading Russian enterprise producing active coals and absorbents based on them. The Open Joint Stock Company "Galogen" manufactures chladonium, fluoroplastic and fluoroplastware, inorganic and other products. The Open Joint Stock Company "Interkhimprom-Oxosintez" specializes in production of styrene, ethyl benzene, butyl alcohols, 2-ethyl-hexanol.

Another enterpise of military-industrial complex - Plant named after Kirov - produces a wide range of civil-purpose products: aerosol extinguishing substances, polyurethane (foamed and cast), constructional and finishing materials, paintworks materials, industrial explosives, etc.

The most significant enterprises of the fuel and energy complex are: the Limited Liability Company "LUKoil-Permnefteorgsintez" (motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and other petroleum products), the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Lubricant Producing Plant" (cutting emulsions, cutting liquids, working fluids, additives, autocosmetics), the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Gas Refinery" and the Open Joint Stock Company "Kama Hydro" (electric power production).

Perm today

Perm is the princial place of business of such fuel and energy complex companies as the Close Joint Stock Company "LUKoil-Perm" (the company performs the whole production cycle: from deposit prospecting and exploitation to production and sale of petroleum products), the Open Joint Stock Company "LUKoil-Permneft" (oil and gas extraction), the Open Joint Stock Company "Permenergo" (generation, transmission and distribution of electric and heat energy; some of electric power plants are located in the regional centre).

The timber industrial complex of the city is based on the use of rich timber reserves of Prikamye. One of four pulp-and-paper enterprises of the region - the Joint Stock Company "Perm Pulp-and-Paper Mill" - is situated in Perm. Among woodworking enterprises of the city are the Limited Liability Company "Orglit" (fiber boards, joinery and other timber products) and the Open Joint Stock Company "Krasny Oktyabr" (saw-timber).

The Joint Stock Company "Permmebel", the Joint Stock Company "Dratsena" and the Limited Partnership "Druzhba" are among those producing furniture.

Food industry is also well represented.

Perm is located at the intersection of the Kama deep-water route, Moscow-Ekaterinbourg- Tyumen-Vladivistok railway and Ekaterinbourg- Kazan federal road.

Perm today

Gornozavodskaya branch line off the Trans-Siberian railway - the oldest railway line in the Urals - goes to Ekaterinbourg via Tchusovoi, Gornozavodsk (Pashia station) and Nizhny Tagil.

Bus and minibus service connects Perm with many settlements of Perm agglomeration and the most towns and districts of the region.

There are two river ports incorporated into the United Deep-Water Navigation System of the European part of Russia: Perm and Levshino. During navigation period tourist ships run from Perm to Moscow, St.Petersbourg, Rostov-on-the-Don, Astrakhan.

Bolshoye Savino airport provides service for many air companies. Direct air routes connect Perm with Moscow, Samara, Rostov-on-the-Don, Mineralnye Vody, Krasnodar, Novy Urengoi, Baku, Kishenev, Tashkent, Frankfurt-on-the-Main.

The city transport is represented by tram (12 routes), trolley-bus (11 routes), bus (over 70 routes), fixed-route taxi (over 30 routes) and taxi traffic. During navigation period a passenger ferry-boat across the Kama is in service.

Electronic communication services are rendered by the Open Joint Stock Company "Uralsvyazinform", postal communication - by the enterprises of the Perm region Department of Federal Mail Service.

Perm today

Currently market infrastructure is gathering force in Perm. The primary banks are Perm bank of the Savings Bank of Russia, the Open Joint Stock Company "Permstroibank", the Open Joint Stock Commercial Bank "Prikamye", the Open Joint Stock Commercial Bank "Perm", the Limited Liability Company Commercial Bank "Dzerzhinsky", the Open Joint Stock Bank "Permkredit", Perm Regional Branch of the Joint Stock Commercial Bank "SBS-Agro" (Moscow), Perm Branch of the Limited Liability Company "Komipermbank" (Kudymkar), "Permsky" Branch of the Open Joint Stock Commercial Bank "Transkapitalbank" (Moscow) and others.

The main insurance companies are the Open Joint Stock Company "Rosgosstrakh-Perm", the Limited Liability Company "Adonis", the Open Joint Stock Company "Ural-Ail", the Limited Liability Company "Perm-Asko", the Close Joint Stock Company "Privat-Energostrakh", etc. The main auditing companies are: the Close Joint Stock Company "Finansy", the Close Joint Stock Company "Audit Privat Servis", the Limited Liability Company "Uralaudit", the Limited Liability Company "Konsultant" and others.

In Perm there are several branches of the Ural Research Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation, tens of scientific, research and design institutions, 8 establishments of higher education and 24 establishments of secondary education. In 1998-1999 school year 172 comprehensive secondary schools had 136 608 pupils.

In 1998 the city public health system numbered 59 municipal dispensaries and polyclinics and 31 hospitals. For every 1000 inhabitants of the city there were 166 beds, and for every 10 000 inhabitants - 45 doctors.

Perm is an important cultural centre of Russia. There are seven professional theaters.

Perm today

The city has powerful industrial potential, and is an important cultural and scientific centre of the country. Perm is the main "donor" of the regional budget.

At the same time Perm has many knotty problems common to other cities of this rank:

1. The city functional structure is overburdened with production and other functions not typical for big cities with population over a million people in well-developed countries.

The city develops extensively in isolation from the agglomeration. As a consequence, a network of satellite towns is only slightly developed, processes of redistribution of production, development (building) and other functions among the centre and periphery of the agglomeration are practically absent. Financial and economic, educational, cultural, scientific, recreational and a number of other functions are not adequately developed either.

2. The branch and intra-branch structures of industry are not in balance.

3. The city is significally overburdened with external transport communications.

4. Absence of dynamic balance between production sphere and environment.

Development prospects of the city must be closely connected with development of Perm agglomeration which centre the city is. The agglomeration, in its turn, must develope intensively which involves elaboration and implementation of mechanisms of deconcen- tration of social and economic development in an effort to restrain the extensive growth of Perm and restrict establishment of productions that require additional territorial, material and technical resources. Concurrently, the problem of rapid social and economic development of small towns and settlements of urban type must be decided; they are to become agglomeration subcentres forming in correlation with the city's release from the functions not typical for it.

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Alexander Kashintsev © The city of Perm